Comparison Between Founding Fathers of America and Pakistan

Founding fathers can be defined as a group of people who gain independence of their particular geographic area from a tyrannical mother country. The founding fathers are revolutionary figures in the war of independence as they represent the characteristics of their region, be tenacious to their ideological and intellectual beliefs and wage a great fight against the dominant colonizers, and free themselves of their rule.

American founding fathers were men of great intellect and eminence. Their strength were their tendency and predilection for intelligence, intellectual discourses, their love of pen and book. The most important revolutionary figures are former American President George Washington, former President Thomas Jefferson, former President John Adams, a multi-talented Sir Benjamin Franklin, former American President James Madison, the great Federalist Alexander Hamilton and many other important figures. These men garnered support from 13 colonies and gained their independence from the Great Britain on 4th July, 1776.

Pakistani founding fathers were men of great wisdom and foresight. The most important figures include Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Allama Iqbal, Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, Sir Agha Khan, Nawab Liaquat Ali Khan, Mohsin ul Mulk, Wiqar ul Mulk, Ali Brothers and many Ulema and Mashaikh who supported Quaid in the struggle of independence against Great Britain and Hindus of Britis India.

There are similarities to a great extent between the struggle of Pakistani founding fathers and American founding fathers. Both were sympathizers of the common man. They did not accumulate wealth from the war of independence, rather gave away from their wealth. They bore hardships and resisted attempts when they were dissuaded from their ideological convictions. They never agreed to a deal which could have averted their independence.

Pakistani founding fathers were inspired of the great tales of American War of Independence. Pakistani founding fathers were educated men who aspired revolutionary figures, and with the American inspirational figures, Pakistani founding fathers were immersed in the Islamic ideology. The events were same, public was being ravaged and subjugated by the dominant class of the society. Thereby the war of independence was imminent back then owing to the oppressive measures adopted by the ruling and dominant class against Muslims of British India and the colonists of 13 colonies.

Their fortitude and courage made Pakistan and United States of America countries on the map of the world.

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Can we live in a Expectations-free society in Pakistan. No.

Pakistan is a south-Asian country, neighboring India, China, Afghanistan, Iran and opening outwards the Arabian sea. Pakistan is a beautiful country culturally and geographically. Pakistan is home to rich ancient cultures. Cultures are dynamic, adaptive to the changes. However, today Pakistani society is less of the representative of the rich cultures of the soils rather they are constricted by such cultural and social norms which are not only affecting society, but the individual life enormously. Following are some examples how society wants to constrain an individual’s choices in different manner, and affect social development and progress:

Education Choice:Pakistani society seems to be infested by a variety of pathogens. These pathogens, when diagnosed, are the root cause of the underdevelopment of the society as a whole. The role that a Pakistani adult is expected to fulfill is highly impractical, and unsatisfying to an individual. An individual is socialized to fulfill an anticipated role of an educated graduate degree holding guy. This anticipated role becomes the ideal of the child. Education choices are limited to offices, schools/Colleges/universities and hospitals. A person can a good Engineer, Doctor, Teacher or banker. Arts and humanities are downgraded because of the stigma attached to the professions within these degrees.

Career Choice:  Professions are extremely gendered. The choice of professions are very limited in Pakistan for women, and gender-marked. The famous choices are the Teacher and the Doctor. The man is sought to be hegemonic-aggressive, dominant, torch-bearer, bread-winner and callous creature who would be fit to step into the highly honored chairs and offices of the society. Women is fragile, unable to protect herself physically and honour of a man rest onto the honour of the women of the family, hence the job market returns for the women are few. These entrenched dogmas into the minds of the society propagates an acceptable role which is expected of a responsible and reputable citizen of the country. A man has a variety of choices, no restriction on his mobility and freedom which enables to him create a good environment in order to pursue his career choices.

Though women are restricted in the adoption of a career, men are also denied many careers following the stigmas attached to such professions. For example, arts and humanities are not reputable in Pakistan. Only office jobs are considered to be honourable. This can be due to many factors, of which one could be absense of extra curricular activities in Pakistani schools.

Mobility of women in Society: Many Pakistanis, I would believe, has the conviction on the restriction of the women as the Taliban does. We are a traditional society, we must keep conform to such standards. But the role that a women is expected to fill can be highly straining and stressing for the girl. The expectations tied to the femininity of a female are such enormous that the they experience strain and stress in the process of the accomplishment and sustaining of the socially accepted roles.

These are the tip of the iceberg. Urban residents feel blessed with existence of such choices and environment, however rural population, which is denser than urban, live in such a highly stigmatized society in which patriarchal nature of the society obviates any choice for women. They are marginalized section of society who are oppressed and subjugated in every way. Irony is the consciousness about their subjugated and oppressed status haven’t reached them yet.

We live in a Pakistani society in which individuals are expected to fulfill an anticipated role and follow a generalized other created by the society. However, not everybody possess the institutionalized means to acquire the socially accepted roles. Regulation of society in matters which should be personal result into the problems and issues in the individual life to a great extent. We live in deeply webbed expectations, thus.

These choices, prevalent customs and traditional behaviour do not only impact an individual life, but collective life and society, thus state also. Education would impact the literacy rates and career choices would have an impact on the economy of Pakistan. A woman in four wall means half of the population is dependent. Literacy rates have an impact on the family/household level. When mother is educated, chances of the next generation enrollment are higher. Thus, expectations of a traditional society are impacting nation as a whole as well.

Changing Priorities of USA in Afghanistan and Accused Pakistan

  • Introduction
  • Afghanistan: Geo-strategic location
  • Why is it important for superpowers of the time?
  • Great Game: Russian Vs Great Britian
  • Afghanistan as a Buffer Zone in 1919
  • An Iron Curtain has descended upon the Continent – Britain former Prime Minister Winston Churcill
  • The partition of world into essentially two blocs: NATO vs WARSAW pact
  • The Political instability of Afghanistan: King Zahir Shah deposed by Muhammad Daud Khan in 1973
  • People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) and Saur Revolution 1978
  • Babrak karmal Installed by Soviet Union as President of Republic of Afghanistan
  • Muslim Population Cry for Holy War: Mujahideen answers
  • Osama Bin Laden and Other warlords cherished during this time
  • Mujahideen supported by United States of America through Pakistan and her Intelligence agency Inter-Service Intelligence Agency (ISI)
  • Other supporters of Mujahideen included Saudi Arabia, Turkey and China
  • End of Soviet Invasion: Gorbachev’s policies of Perestrioka and Glasnost in Soviet Union became precondition for the superpower’s demise, ultimately leading to end of Soviet invasion
  • Afghan Civil War (1989-1996)
  • Establishment of Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan by Taliban
  • Creation of World Islamic Jihand Front Against Jews and Christians (later Al-Qaeda)
  • Major Attacks of WIJFJC and Declaration of War Against Israel and West
  • 9/11: game changer in the International Politics and torch bearer for numerous other issues that followed
  • War on Terror: Either you are with us or you are with terrorist organizations
  • Pakistan allied with USA in WoT
  • Bush Doctrine
  • Iraq War (2003): Abu Bakar al Baghdadi
  • Obama Doctrine
  • Resurgence of Al Qaeda and ISIS: Arab Spring
  • Trump Doctrine
  • What is Trump Doctrine?
  • It aims at rectification of the errors of the Bush Doctrine and Obama Doctrine
  • It makes known minuscule knowledge of what American government imminent is supposed to do.
  • It unleashes aggression against its ally Pakistan
  • It welcomes Indian participation in the development and stabilization of Afghanistan
  • Pakistan’s Role in War on Terror
  • Pakistan’s Counter-terrorism successful operations
  • Pakistan’s Perceived Victory in Wiping out Terrorists from its Soil
  • Why is Pakistan being dumped all the accusations and blames?
  • Terrorist organizations and linkages of Intelligence agencies with terrorist networks is a routine work
  • Cost of War on Terror on Pakistan
  • Conclusion

Afghanistan is a central Asian and South Asian landlocked country, neighbouring Pakistan into its south and east, Iran to the west, central Asian states in the north and China and Pakistani administered tribal areas to the far north. Afghanistan emerged as an independent state in 1747 when the Persians were overthrown and Ahmed Shah Durani founded the Afghan Empire. Afghanistan has been always been a State whom foreign powers have urged to conquer. United Kingdom and Russia played a very famous Great Game, and nobody could control the region. Ultimately, it was announced a buffer zone between Russia and subcontinent which was under British rule at the time. Afghanistan has always been reached by such foreign powers in the modern era as well. Afghanistan had been a peaceful country. Its utility had been limited to as buffer zone between great powers. Afghanistan, today, is an Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It had been known as a graveyard of empires. It is very convenient to invade Afghanistan, but it is difficult to conquer and it is rather difficult to rule it. No empire has ruled Afghanistan other than her indigenous population (tribes). The reason is said to be its geography and very sharp topography of the Afghanistan. Afghanistan is divided into two parts by Hindukush mountains, and its tribes are characterized by rivalry, inter-ethnic issues, prevalence of skirmishes etc among tribes. This is why it is difficult to rule Afghanistan.

In the Post-World War II era, an iron curtain descended upon the continent – it was decreed by Winston Churchill of United Kingdom in his address to to Westminster College on 5 March 1946. This speech announced the advent of Cold War. Cold war was the protracted ideological, geopolitical and economic struggle between global superpowers of Soviet Union and the United States of America, who were supported by their military alliance. It lasted from end of World War II until the period preceding the demise of Soviet Union on 25 December, 1991. It was a global confrontation between these two powers. Two blocs were created under their banners. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) and WarSaw Pact (1955) were two main pacts which drove the battle for America and Russia respectively. Afghanistan was trapped in this game from which it had been unable to recover since then.

Afghanistan was ruled by King Zahir Shah, and he installed his cousin Muhammad Daud Khan as Prime Minister and later as President of Afghanistan till 1963. He remained out of power till he staged a come back through a military coup in 1973. he overthrew the monarchy and proclaimed himself as a President of Afghanistan Republic. Daud was overthrown through a military coup in April 1978 and Nur Muhammad Taraki succeeded him. The New regime developed intimate relations with Soviet Union and concluded a treaty of friendship and cooperation with Soviet Union. A dramatic change took place in September 1979 when Hafizullah Amin replaced Nur Muhammad as PDPA was challenged with inter-party conflicts. His regime lasted only three months and Babrak Karmal, a former vice President assumed power. Karmal regime was fully backed by the soviet troops. The opponents to Karmal regime carried on Guerrilla warfare which has been going on since then. 34 Muslims nations and United Nations General Assembly opposed the invasion. Soviet army soon controlled the cities but not rural areas. Afghanistan topography does not let any foreign power capture the country for longer period, it renders foreign powers defeated in their pursuit.

Afghanistan consists of 55% Pushtoons and 37 Tajiks. Others include Uzbeks, Hazaras, Turkmen etc. There is majority of Muslim population in Afghanistan who resisted communist and socialist aspects of the Saur Revolution. They opposed the female education, empowerment and further protested godless invaders. The Muslim population cried for help to their Muslim Brethren of Middle East, subcontinent, Central Asian, African etc. Large number of Mujahideen began pouring into Afghanistan to deter and defy Soviet Union in favour of Afghanistan and their Muslim masses. During this time, Osama Bin Laden, who was a rich scion of a Saudi family, also landed in the pursuit of Jihad against Soviet Union. Other important various warlords such as Ahmed Shah Masoud, Mullah Omar, Dostum etc also grew into this period. It can be said that the period 1979-1989 was germinating seeds for destabilizing factors against Afghanistan.

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan is counted among the proxy conflicts of Cold War between Soviet Union and United States of America. Therefore, America propped up its military support for Mujahideen (Islamic warriors). Soviet invaion winded down when Gorbachez came to power with the promises to end all international military engagements of the Soviet Union, and implemented Perestrioka and Galsnost policies. These policies are underscored as the factors behind the demise of the Soviet Union. Due to increasing international pressure and domestic disturbances including financial burden of the war, Afghanistan and Pakistan signed Afghanistan accords on 14 April 1988 at Geneva while United States of America and Soviet Union appended signatures as Guarantors.

Afghanistan fell prey to civil war among warlords after the departure of Soviet troops. This civil war started in 1989 and ended in 1996 with the Establishment of the Taliban regime which occupied most of the Afghanistan, and Northern Alliance of Ahmed Shah Masoud and Burhanuddin Rabbani occupied northern part of Afghanistan. Taliban proclaimed themselves as the legitimate government of Afghanistan (Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan) in its capitol Kabul. This government was recognized by Pakistan.

In May 1996, World Islamic Jihad Front against Jews and Christians, sponsored by Osama Bin Laden, started forming large base of operations in Afghanistan where extremist group of Taliban had seized power earlier in the year. WIJFJC declared war against West and Israel. Its major attacks before 9/11 include attacks on US embassy in kenya and Tanzania, bombing of port in Yemen killing navy soldiers of USA and  2000 millenium attack plots. It planned an attack which changed the world and its face: 9/11. On 11 September 2001, 19 Islamic men affiliated with Al Qaeda hijacked four airliners and collided with WTO twin towers, Pentagon. Fourth airline was diverted and it crashed into a field. No flight had a survivor. 9/11 was perpetrated by the same parties whom United States of America had funded during Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979-1989). Those Mujahideen had turned into Frankenstein monster for United States of America, and later for Pakistan.

George W. Bush, President of United States of America at the time, declared:

“Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists.”

Former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf sided with USA against the Taliban government in Afghanistan after an ultimatum by then President George W. Bush. Pakistan fought side by side with US coalition forces, provided three airbases for Operation Enduring Freedom. It decapitated terrorist organizations which were waging war against United States in Afghanistan. All the key terrorist organization leaders such as Baitullah Mehsood, Mullah Omar, Khalid Sheikh Mohammad and other very important figures of important ranks of Al Qaeda, taliban and other terrorist networks were erased by Pakistani army and air force with the help of US army. Operation Enduring Freedom was fought by International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan from 2001-2014. There were key doctrines which were part of this war against terrorism. Bush Doctrine, Obama Doctrine and now Trump Doctrine are one of theose doctrine which structure the plan on how the situation in Afghanistan and around the world regarding terrorism would be managed.

Bush doctrine was a USA National Security strategy. It is main components were unilateralism, pre-emptive strike, democratic regime change and attacking countries that harbour terrorism. It declared that America would use the force against terrorist and extremists unilaterally without support of any international body or sovereign state. Bush announced later that he would take preventive measures if required to counter the terrorism.

In 2003, Iraq was invaded by United States of America when United Nations committee announced that Iraq had failed to ratify that Iraq had failed to fully account for the its banned weapons . Since the Gulf War 1991, Iraq was being inspected by the United Nations Special Commission, and upon their declaration, Saddam Hussein was found guilty and Iraq was destroyed. It is said that main motive behind the US action in Iraq was its desire to get regime change in Iraq and ensure freedom to the Iraqis – democratic regime change is third tenet of Bush doctrine which, as is clear, was put into practice during presidency of George W Bush.

In 2008, American public began questioning the Iraq war as the evidence that Iraq possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction was nowhere to be seen, and the reason for Iraq war seemed false to majority public opinion. Public opinion was outraged and Obama was campaigning for Presidency during this period. In 2003, Obama, then a state senator from Illinois, delivers a speech in Chicago against the Iraq war. “I don’t oppose all wars. What I am opposed to is a dumb war.” He continued this policy, as his policy came to be known as of Negotiations and Collaboration rather than confrontational edge of the Bush doctrine. Later, he adopted war policy due to pressing time, which is he stated:

“War is sometimes necessary, and war at some level is an expression of human folly.”

Obama Doctrine failed, it is debated, because he announced the dates of his departure. Terrorist networks were well aware of the departure, and they regrouped as soon as the departure occurred. The departure dates from Afghanistan and Iraq were part of the Obama plan to be re-elected as President, and glorify himself in the eyes of Americans by departing and fulfilling his promise. However, his glorification gave birth to the very violent terrorist organization ISIS. As the departure of American forces left vacuum in Iraq, it was filled by  Al Qaeda. Al Qaeda split into two factions. ISIS emerged out of it, and it became more lethal than its parent body. Islamic State of Iraq and Syria destabilized the volatile Arab region of Syria and Iraq. ISIS became involved in both Syrian civil war and Iraq war, and now it is being regrouped in Afghanistan, which is major concern for USA whose departure vacuum was replenished in Afghanistan in the same way as it did in Iraq.

Trump Doctrine surfaced last year in the Foreign Policy of America. It is said that this doctrine is about the traditional compelling allied states into doing more, and here in our context, trump advised us to do better than India, which is the bone of contention. The trump doctrine was created in his tweets, where he pursues others to follow his commanding tone and do more and chip in the expenditures of the journeys whom United States of America took in the first place. In more detail, this is a doctrine where the U.S. puts pressure on its traditional allies to contribute more towards shared strategic goals. And at the same time, it’s a doctrine where the U.S. insists on taking the risk of publicly calling our sometimes hostile allies to take more control of rogue elements in their respective regions of the world.

Trump has denied to make known the number of troops he will be sending to Afghanistan, as this equips the terrorist organizations with all the firsthand knowledge about what-to-do and when-to-do operations against US forces in Afghanistan. This is a good step.

Trump has further applauded India in her part of endeavors. Indian efforts of bringing stability in Afghanistan at the expense of Pakistan’s security have been appreciated by the President of USA.

More recently, Trump has unleashed aggression against Pakistan over providing safe havens and sanctuaries to the terrorist organizations in Pakistan despite the affirmative actions of Pakistan in the War on Terror OF AMERICA. Pakistan dismantled terrorist groups in join operations from 2001-2010, and decapitated most of the terrorist networks which may include Tehreek e Taliban Pakistan, Afghan Taliban, Tehrik e Nifaz e Shariat e Muhammadi, Lashkar e Jhanghvi, Jundallah, East Turkemanistan Islamic Movement, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and other militant organizations in South and North Waziristan. Pakistan army purged the northern areas of militants and terrorist and retained control of it through a number of operations. They include (1) Operation Rah e Haq (first battle of Sawat), (2) Operation Black Thunderstorm (Second Battle of Sawat), (3) Operation Rah e Nijat and (4) Operation Zarb e Azab among other operations. Pakistan has been victorious in wiping out terrorism from its soil.

In a government report 2011, the ISPR stated that a total 40,309 Pakistanis, both military and civilian had lost their lives in the conflict. In addition, the TTP and Central Asian militant groups suffered a staggering number of human casualties, and according to the reports 20742 militants had been killed or captured by  Feb 2010.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There lies a question why foreign powers want to control the region. The answer is very simple: Geo-strategic Location. Afghanistan bordered Russian territory back then at the time of Great Time, now it borders Central Asian States which gained independence after the collapse of USSR in the 1991, Persian Empire, Chinese empire and British empire. Today, its geostrategic importance continues as it borders China, which is a giant economic powerhouse. Iran lies in the west to Afghanistan, which is a traditional enemy of the west, and USA gains a tactical advantage over Iran by keeping troops nearby it. Afghanistan also borders Central Asian States. Thus, Afghanistan has a very important position in the Atlas for Americans.

Crisis of Good Governance in Pakistan

Good governance can be defined as decision-making process by a range of interested people or stakeholders including those in position of power and ordinary citizens. Governance is all of the processes governing, whether undertaken by a government, civil society organizations, international governmental organizations, international non governmental organizations, multinational corporations and other bodies which possess the decision-making power. A variety of entities, called governing bodies, can govern. Usually in lay terms, good governance is associated with the government who governs the national and international affairs of a state, however there are other actors too who get a say in the decision making of a state at different levels including government who govern by establishing laws, corporations, socio-political group and other informal group of people can be said to govern. Governance may take many forms, in a democratic government, the people can vote, express their opinion and influence the decision. On the other hand, in a non profit organization, board of directors may decide on all concerning and pressing matters. Governance is also influenced by a variety of external factors for example think tanks, lobbies, political parties, non government organizations and media. Governance is the decision making power of group of people or individuals who sway the decisions at local, national or international level that influence a number of people.

These decisions have a huge impact on the ways in which citizens lead their lives, on the structures that determine where and how they work and live. They also shape how public resources are allocated and whether services take account of both women’s and men’s needs and interests.

In Pakistan, the governance is conducted by a number of actors. De jure leader is the Prime Minister of Pakistan who leads the Parliamentarians and Cabinet members. These sub-actors legislate, enforce and interpret the law, then assist Prime Minister in his mighty, influential and the most important work which is very significant for the national and international life of Pakistan. Head of the State is President in the Pakistani legal system, who is nominal part of the government. De facto leaders include The Establishment and retired military generals, demagogue politicians who claimed to have ‘reside in jails’ for they were improving conditions of Pakistan thereby trapped in a conspiracy, international intervention in Pakistan also exists which dictates her policy on a number of events and other very important leaders who are out of the sight of ordinary citizens of Pakistan. De jure leaders, commanded  by de facto leaders of Pakistan, have functioned such that they have led government of Pakistan to a Crisis. There is a crisis of governance in Pakistan. Decision Making profits de facto leaders at the expense of common man. There are a number of reasons which have caused governance crisis in Pakistan. They are explained below:

For good governance, accountability is fundamental requirement. Local governments should be answerable to a higher authority for their acts and affairs. In a socialist country, hierarchy of the government is structured in such manner as that officials are responsible for supervising the lower officials and are themselves accountable to higher ones. Bureaucratic organization follows the same pattern, as enunciated by Marx Weber. This is also required for the good governance. In Pakistan, this is lacking. Officials are answerable to nobody. Ills of the corruption and acceptance of such culture by everyone obviates the required good governance. Hence, the crisis results from such culture.

Institutional supremacy is utmost important for the prevalence of good governance. Institutions should be established and entrenched in the political culture thus making them supreme. However, since Pakistan is third world country, institutions are mere tools in the hands of the successive governments who loot the national treasury and bring chaos in the institutional structure. There are number of instances which have abased the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. For example, there have been military coups in Pakistan and there have been three successful coups in Pakistan. Since its creation, Pakistan has spent several decades in military rule. The removal of Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry and later struggle for his reinstatement in the office is such an example in the history of Pakistan. This is why, good governance has been a far distant dream in the national life of Pakistan.

Good governance follows the rule of law. There should be rule of law in every walk of life, justice must prevail in every corner of the territory. According to Dicey, rule of law has three meanings. At first, it means no innocent man can be punished without due course of law. Secondly, it means no government department can acts dictatorially and inflict punishment and thirdly it means constitutional guarantees are not the end of the rights of the individuals, ordinary law of the country defend those rights and the constitution of the country can be moulded according to the conception of the right. There is pervasive lawlessness in the country. The courts of law are manipulated by the rich in their favour, political parties sway the decisions of the court following their stronghold in different cities and culture of corruption exists everywhere in the country which obstruct the smooth rule of law.  Embezzlement in the governmental departments and private sectors increases due to notion that there is no body to hold them accountable for their fraudulent actions. This in turn results into the rampant corruption in the country. White collar crimes surge even more following the absence of rule of law, incompetent judiciary and rampant corruption within judiciary as well. non-transparency is also an obstruction in the process of good governance. The decisions regarding matters regarding management of a country’s social, political and economic development are affected tremendously due to these factors. This further hampers the economic development of Pakistan.

Political stability is another significant prerequisite of the good governance. Political stability has never existed in Pakistan. Pakistan has been challenged with political instability since its inception. Political instability can be defined as the propensity of a government to collapse either because of conflicts or rampant corruption between different political parties. Political instability can also occur due to mismanagement of the country’s resources which hamper the economic growth of a country. This can be exemplified by the fact that no Civilian government has been able to complete its tenure till 2008, and the history record of the military coups is another side of the coin.

Good governance in inclusive and responsive. It ensures the equal participation of the both genders. However, Pakistan is a patriarchal society in which women has been given lower status in the society due to traditional norms, customs and values. As such, half of the population of the country, which could be an asset, is dependent on their male counterparts for their subsistence and existence. There are also no equal educational opportunities available in the Pakistani Society. Boys are considered as the future of the family, and torch bearers of their fathers. Hence, a male child is preferred over girl child. There are many factors which contribute to the widespread gender disparity in the country, which is on the higher side even by the South Asian standards. Firstly, since cultural norms discourage female participation in the job market, job opportunities are limited for them and it reduces the market return to female education. Secondly, important determinants of female education include direct cost and opportunity cost. Direct cost are fees, uniforms, transport and books. Opportunity cost of sending daughters to school is greater as they are responsible for domestic chores. As daughters leave their parental house after marriage, the expected benefit of educating them is small relative to sons. Hence, female illiteracy is higher than male illiteracy. Though, critical link between the status of women in society, particularly literacy level and a nation’s economic growth, has been well documented. A compelling body of evidence has proved that investing in girl’s education is the most effective way of pursuing a broad range of critical development objective and that the returns on educating girls are greater than the returns on educating boys. It yields some of the highest returns of all development investment, generating both private and social benefits that accrue to individuals, families and society at large.

 

Good governance, in a nutshell, requires a state to be converted into a welfare state or market socialism. Pakistan lacks all the requirements of the good governance which have disrupted economic, social and political development of Pakistan. There are many individual level reason responsible for the bad governance in Pakistan. Political parties, competition among demagogues for the attainment of the government machinery whom they misuse and mismanage for maximizing their fiefdoms and profits of their businesses at home and abroad, the nepotism and favoritism, feudal and chauvinistic character of the society, illiteracy, overpopulation etc. These are social problems of Pakistan. Social problems are interrelated as one problem can cause another problem. Overpopulation is a social problem in Pakistan reducing the development if any is acquired. The consequences of the growth of population are numerous, giving birth to many other social problems. With the increase in population, the GDP and the GNP decrease due to consumption of more goods, in turn requires increasing import. One of the consequences of population growth is low per capita income due to increased dependency ratio. Because of overpopulation, there is availability of cheap but highly skilled labour force which is market competitive but has resulted in lower wages which in turn has caused low standard of living. Further, it increases unemployment as the supply labour in more than the actually required. The current unemployment rate in Pakistan has swelled to 5.6%. Additionally, high population growth rate decreases savings as people have to pay more taxes to support increasing dependent population. Another consequence can be inflation as the more demands for good can increase the price of commodities in the market. The current inflation rate in Pakistan is estimated to be 14.1%, very high. Overpopulation has also increased the demand for housing, one of the major reasons behind increased prices, rents of houses, especially in urban areas. Crimes, swelling suicide rates, illiteracy, strain on natural resources, environmental degradation and low availability of the services are few other effects of overpopulation. So, one bad policy of the decision makers can fan these all interrelated social problems in a society or state.

There are also pressing water and energy crisis in Pakistan. The water and energy crisis are other disasters for Pakistan. All these crises are the products of poor governance of the top brass leadership of Pakistan. Water shortage can be attributed to Indian hegemony and government’s inability to utilize available water resources efficiently. Energy crisis has become a very significant social problem affecting economy and a common man’s productivity simultaneously. Lesser productivity leads to lesser output. Lesser output leads to less profit, causing loss and depression. Thus, these all problems including other micro level problems have affected the social and individual life of common man to a great extent.

Pakistan should pursue following recommendations so as to escape the trap of the bad governance. Firstly, there should be eradication of the corruption in the country. Every department in Pakistan is beset with corruption. There is no regard for standards, ethical and technical demands of the profession. Corruption must be rooted out to create the place for transparency, healthy competition and unanimity which will contribute to the economic and social development of Pakistan.

Pakistan is a less developed country trapped in the poverty, underdevelopment, unequal distribution of resources etc. Pakistan should start fostering economic development through achievement of following three objectives:

  1. To increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life-sustaining goods such as food, shelter and protection. This, however, would be possible with a fast increase in real per capita income.
  2. To raise levels of living including, in addition to higher incomes, the provision of more good, better education and greater attention to cultural and humanistic values, all of which will serve not only to enhance material well being but also to generate individual and national self-esteem.
  3. To expand range of economic and social choice to individuals and nations. Economic development is to be assessed ultimately by the enhancement of the ‘positive freedom’.

Thus, economic development can be seen as a process involving good governance as a prerequisite for it to take place.

Measures must be taken so as to tackle the social problems of Pakistan through good governance. Central planning and local planning by the provincial authorities must be implemented in species. If other measure to tackle problems such as overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, rising crime rate etc is required, they must be remedied in the context of the problem. For example, in order to remedy overpopulation, it is needed to first bring social change in the attitude of the independent action and collective action of the people. Bringing social change in the cultural norms and attitudes is required to tackle the problem of overpopulation because determinants of the overpopulation are religious tenets, social and cultural norms regarding preference of male child, early marriages of girl again is connected with the cultural traditions of placing honour of a man in the actions of the woman thus marrying a girl in early age obviates chance of her bringing shame to the family. Thus, every social problem must be tackled in its context.

Accountability must be ensured of the culprits who are involved in the white collar crimes. Equal participation of both genders must be brought about to lessen the effects of the bad governance. Women empowerment is a long-term solution to the problem of bad governance in Pakistan. Education must be made compulsory and free for children. Those should be punished who obstruct the girl to avail compulsory and free education. An educated woman is a long term solution for the staggering economy and unstable political condition of Pakistan. Educated women have fewer children. It is estimated that one year of female schooling reduced fertility rate by 10%. Educated women provide better nutrition and healthcare for their families, experience significantly lower child mortality, generate more income and are far more likely to educate their children than woman with little or no schooling, thus creating a virtuous cycle for the community and the country.

There must be checks and balances among all institutions of Pakistan. No institution should posses dictatorial powers, and a smooth functioning of the governmental structure should be in working in order to make the good governance a possibility in the future of Pakistan. Good relations between center and province must be maintained because if the province is filled with separatist and fissiparous tendencies is not conducive to development, further such a relation mars the development greatly.

Free electronic and print media should exist in Pakistan. Free media is spirit and soul of a democratic government. The implementation of the policies, the day to day working of the government, the important issues and other vital things are brought to attention by the media. Media has a very key role in the national life of Pakistan. Thus, media should follow the implementation about the aforementioned policy measures.

Summing up, we can say that Pakistan is trapped in the crisis of bad governance to a great extent. Every department of Pakistan is beset with bad governance. There is no regard for the ethical standards. Due to bad governance, every department is going through crisis. Many social problems are arising due to bad governance. The social problems are affecting the life of common man who finds it difficult to make ends meet. Social problems such an unemployment and poverty ensue into the crime. The crimes rise because government is not remedying the root of the problems; bad governance. Hence, for Pakistan to become prosperous, developed and buoyant, it utterly lacks good governance.

Beautiful Things in Life

Life is filled with beautiful things. There are enticing experiences that improve the meaning of the words and their meaning which we hold in our minds. Those beautiful things are very trivial in their value, but entail a great importance imparting our sense a great lesson and blessing us with their existence.

The smile of a child is very beautiful. Everything about a child is pure. Their pure intentions or their pure demands of toys or favorite food is one of the most beautiful things in life one can experience. These little smiles, little hugs, half words of a kid, strive of a kid to walk and run are the prettiest gifts of this life.

A child is similar to a soul that a person carry around, but dwelling in this world it becomes malignant and corrupted. The beauty arrives when the return from such filth occurs. Transformation from corrupt and malignant person back to good and benevolent person is a beautiful thing of life. Life is not static. You can write and erase, you can draw, erase and redraw and continue the process until you reach your destination. Life sends waves that erase when something has been transcribed wrong in one’s life. It has to rain before a rainbow comes. It rains, but the rainbow is sure because life is not ruthless.

God has blessed humankind (yes, that’s us) with different seasons that paint our memories with their unique smells, colors, patterns of the day that get pictured through high amount of sunlight, mediocre amount of sunlight and lower amount of sunlight and especially the breeze that blows with each season. They colors us pretty. Our memories of each season are different from each other, entrenching itself as one of the most beautiful things in life.

In our day-to-day life, we smile, sadden, fight over a tiff and compromise, draw distances in case of misunderstandings and bear the close proximity in case of understanding the misconceptions held earlier, we gift each other with warm words and material gifts over ceremonial occasions, we share problems and solutions emphatically and with empathy, we wipe the tears of the downtrodden and sew the seeds of spirit and courage with enthusiastic letters, the hugs, the appreciation and the forgetfulness of the human nature of a negative aspect, action or perspective are the gifts of the nature that enrich our interaction and our livelihoods that would have been bore and plain without these natural occurring in life which are one of the most beautiful things of life.

Life is not dialectical, which is the beauty about it. There are no binary emotions, that are binary consequences, there are no binary establishments of the consequences of our actions rather we learn. This is one the most beautiful things of life.

Necessity of the National Associations and Organizations in Pakistan

An organization is a group of people whose aim is to serve a particular purpose or purposes. Organizations formulate a constitution, and work accordingly. The leader and the members exhibit the spirit of teamwork, and strive to acquire the goals necessary for the nourishment of the long-term goals of the organization. The roles and duties are assigned to the members, and responsibilities are subdivided. An association is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement to accomplish a purpose.

Pakistan is a member of a number of important international organizations solely for political purposes and balance of power phenomenon. Pakistan is, unfortunately, a scale for the superpowers to put into the international organizations such as ASEAN and SCO to outweigh the competitor into the organization currently. In the past, during the course of the cold war, Pakistan was enrolled as an important scale into the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) and Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO). There are few organizations such as Economic Cooperation Organization and South Asian Regional Cooperation Organization (SAARC), also Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) have been not-good-not-bad for Pakistan. Pakistan does not benefit economically from the international Organizations. Only superpowers have the skills to earn from the international organizations, and double their investment which was put into the formation of the international organization in the first place in order to defend or destroy balance of power (BoP). Pakistan is presently benefiting from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor – which is not an international organization. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a collection of infrastructure projects which are presently under construction across Pakistan. Pakistan lacks active national organizations, platforms and active associations which may work for a) what Pakistan may want, b) what Pakistan should do, c) what Pakistan should do to improve the current condition of the economy, politics and society overall.

The lack of international organizations in Pakistan is highlighted by the international and national organizations working in the developed countries, and serving their national and international interests. Pakistan is in dire need of such national organizations which may further its national goals, and improve the regional conditions,  resolve the societal issues that hinder the better economic performance and well-being of the family.

Pakistani society is entangled in a myriad of problems. There are many lingering crisis which are fed well by the ignorance of the government. For example, education is growing expensive. The public schools are dysfunctional, and operate as they are imparting in the 1950. The curriculum is outdated. Women, in great numbers, are sinking deeper into the morass of depression and violence, while a small section is improving a lot. The situation for women is frayed. Terrorism is obstructing day to day lives. The law and order condition is far better today than it was in 2013, before assumption of the office by former Prime Minister Nawaz Shareef. The provincial discrimination, violence against benign citizens of Balochistan, deteriorating condition of the energy infrastructure, the water crisis, the looming rural population plunged into the illiteracy, corruption and feudalism, and many other anguishing issues and taboos that are affecting the Pakistani society and Pakistan. If these issues and taboos are put forward by active national organizations, and cured by the experts one on one, Pakistan can prosper by leap and bounds.

The awareness campaigns for the rights of the women at regional level, the political campaigns for peaceful resolve of the discrimination against provinces, the drawing of the governmental attention to the issues energy infrastructure or utilization of the renewable energy appliances, the non governmental organizations or ministry level committees to work for rural population etc can help Pakistan go a long way in purging Pakistan of these core problem, putting it on fast track to the prosperity. National economic forums, national women rights organization on larger scale (read: not for political purposes only), national organizations vowed to fight corruption and illiteracy, and national forums for betterment of the current existing education system etc are important for amelioration of the Pakistani public today.

 

Energy Crisis in Pakistan: Causes and Consequences.

Introduction:

Energy is the most essential to ordinary standard of life, economic development; industrial development, agricultural development, sustaining of ongoing development, prosperity of the society, education and for different sectors improvement and survival. Scientific definition of the energy may be, “Energy if the ability to do the work. Energy has different forms. They are (i) Light Energy, (ii) Electrical Energy, (iii) Heat Energy, (iv) Chemical Energy, (v) Magnetic Energy, (vi) Magnetic Energy, (vii) Mechanical Energy, (viii) Atomic Energy. Energy can transfer from one form to another. This Transfer of energy from one form to another creates electricity. Different forms, when employed, creates electricity energy. Electrical Energy is only a kind of energies that can be achieved from experiments on energies.

Electrical Energy is lifeline today. Electrical energy production of any country is the measure of its economy. No country can achieve stupendously blooming economic growth without sufficiency in energy sector. Production of energy reflects the industrial output, agricultural output, transportation etc.

The deficit in supply of electricity to the demand is termed as energy crisis.  Energy crisis are alarming in Pakistan, affecting the growth and output of the industries and agriculture adversely, prevailing unemployment and causing inflation. When energy supply of an industry is restricted, its output decreases and cost of production increases due to which many industries are shut down leaving the labour unemployed. The upsurge in inflation is due to energy shortage in Pakistan. The number of people living under poverty line is increasing due to unemployment and inflation, which are both by products of energy crisis. As the high production cost decrease the rate of output, the exports of Pakistan are declining qualitatively and quantitatively. Our trade deficit is increasing which eventually will result in unstable economy. Severe Load shedding, increasing trade deficit, high inflation, unemployment, depreciation of rupee etc are reducing living standards of people in Pakistan.

Thus, energy crisis is a crisis of human development. Nearly 53% of Pakistanis live without electricity more than 8 hours daily throughout the year. The situation is worse in summer. The multi-dimensional ongoing energy crisis has been having a knock on the door of every Pakistani. Without sufficient energy, the wheel can’t run on roads, industry and agriculture can’t sustain and hospitals and operation theaters can’t function, schools and laboratories can’t work and public and private sectors can’t operate. Electricity, which is lifeblood to modern societies, provides a wide range of services essential to everyday life, including running hospitals, schools, and businesses, heating, cooling and lighting in homes and in work, preserving food commercially, and at home, pumping fresh water supplies and sewage, maintaining the flow of traffic, operating communications systems, internet and information portals and providing power for a wide range of appliances.

Electrical Production and Deficit in Supply

According to Power and Water Authority, the electricity generation in the country stands at 15,886 megawatts against the demand of 19,500 megawatts. As per its details, thermal sector generates 9,900 megawatts, Hydel generates 4,850 and thermal power generates 175 megawatts. The deficit remains 3614 megawatts.

Energy Sectors in Pakistan: 

There are four major power producers in country: WAPDA (Water & Power Development Authority), KESC (Karachi Electric Supply Company), IPPs (Independent Power Producers) and PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission). There are around 20 independent power producers that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.  

Sources of Energy Production in Pakistan

The energy is produced by Renewable and Exhaustible sources of power. Renewable energy sources include (i) By means of Hydel, (ii), By means of Wind, (iii) By means of Biogas, (iv) By means of Solar Energ. Non renewale sources of energy include (i)By means of fossil fuels and (ii) Nuclear energy.

Electricity – production by source (2003)

  • fossil fuel: 65% of total
  • hydro: 31% of total
  • nuclear: 4% of total

Causes of Energy Crisis: 

The causes of energy crisis are multifaceted, emerging from technical causes as well as political causes. They will be discussed one by one following:

(1) Technical Causes: The major technical causes of the shortfall in the availability of electrical energy in Pakistan are:

(i) Insufficient installed generating capacity. It is unfortunate fact that WAPDA and IPPs thermal power plants are running at an average plant factor of 50%. This means that they are producing only 50% of their capacity. They are not utilizing to the fullest. International, it is usual to have the thermal power plant operating at 75-80% plant factor. Operating the power stations as higher plant factors demands better maintenance procedures here. It is felt that operating plants at a higher plant factor will cause them to deliver 20-30% more energy to the system.

(ii)Aging Equipment: Transmission system unable to transmit the greater load now imposed upon it. This is a very important reason attributed to this energy shortage is the aging of the generating equipment which could not develop the electricity as per the design requirement. This is important to continuously update the equipment and keep the high standards of maintenance. Grid stations and related equipment unable to carry the load imposed. Distribution system was built to carry a smaller power and hence unable to cater to the existing demand.

(iii) High Cost of Fuel: The cost of crude has increased from 40$ to 140$ per barrel. It means that generation from thermal units are causing exorbitant price. WAPDA and Ke Eletric when purchasing power on higher cost are not eager to keep on selling the lectricity on loss. Therefore, they do not move on general complain of loadshedding.

(iv) Line Losses Control: The methodology that will provide immediate relief is the conservation and judicious use of the whatever little energy is being produced in the country. The current losses in the system are 24% of the total power generated. These include losses incurred during transmission and distribution as well as due to theft. Government should enforce shutting down of business, forbidding excessive and unnecessary lighting during late hours.

(v) The major management-related causes of the crisis are:

  • Management Information System not fully utilized.
  • Failure to forecast and plan for the future.
  • Failure to set up new generating stations in time.
  • No new Transmission/Distribution networks and grid stations set-up.
  • Unexpectedly rapid growth of load.

Political Causes

(i) Monopolization: In Pakistan, the government has monopolized the generation, transmission and distribution of the energy. This monopolization has devoured the spirit of competition and entrepreneurship. For example, KESC has been privatized. Its privatization has changed hands and its name merely. The monopoly does not have to worry about competition. Therefore, it continues to operate in neglect and inefficiency. Since the market is guaranteed for the monopoly, it does not have to worry about its customers or their issues. It is simply not answerable to respond to them and their problems. It functions with full-fledged immunity, responding only to the interests of the elite class, their business ventures and sugar mills and largely avoiding the masses. “When the State owns, nobody owns. When nobody owns, nobody cares.”

WAPDA and K-Electric are two generation and dispatch units in Pakistan. Although NEPRA is a government authority to settle the tariff issues but the fact remains that once the question of WAPDA arises, authority has very little influence.

(ii) Political Wrangling and Vested Interests: 

Pakistan is controlled by a cadre of active and retired military and civil personnel in collusion with landlord politicians. This elite class controls the country’s biggest and more important businesses, and holds most of the political power as well. All decisions are based on what serves their interest. Political short term rules, that change the authorities and hands of the ongoing works, impacts the energy sector. For instance, in January 2006, cabinet approved the construction of five large dams by 2016, including kalabagh dam. However, keeping adjourned the construction of Kalabagh as expected, it decided to go for a upstream Diamar-Bhasha which hadn’t even had a feasibility report. The other planned dams were not even ready for construction either. The reason for Diamar-Bhasha dam was to avoid political controversy in Sindh that could adversely affect the re election prospects of the Pakistan Muslim League, the party in power, in the general elections scheduled for late 2007.

(iii) Institutional Decay: There is chronic and persistent lack of planning in Pakistan. Or Alternately there is poor planning. In addition, as they say ‘poor planning leads to poor performance’.Pakistan has a large capacity for hydropower (40,000 MW), Large deposits of coal (185 billion reserves), but Pakistan could not exploit those resources at optimum level. Institutional decay and breakdown is the answer.

For instance, in 1990s when Kalabagh dam construction was delayed successive prime ministers including Benazir Bhutto, did not even order the National Water and Power Development Authority to prepare feasibility studies on other dams proposals. When serious power outages occurred in the 1990s, Bhutto embraced thermal power projects backed by foreign investors. The cost to Pakistani masses had been huge.

Consequences of Energy Crisis :

i). Economic Factors: Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences all other sectors of the economy. The economic progress is hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.

ii). Agriculture Sector: Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.

iii). Industrial Sector: Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the existing industrial units are gradually closing.

iv). Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis contributes towards unemployment.

v). Social Issues: This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy (cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustration amongst the people and results in agitation against the government.

vi). Poverty: Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity, unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty. Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in curbing the menace of poverty.

6. Conclusion:

Energy Crisis has, more or less, plagued all sectors of Pakistan’s machinery ranging from economy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering national progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can be overwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactive implementation. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to utilize the available energy astutely and wisely to play our due role for progress of the country.

 

 

 

Warmth of Moments in Winter

Winter is a nostalgia crossing whom becomes unbearable to the breathes and memories; which it carries in its cold pores around. Every season has a unique smell of memories, laughter, cries, tears, heart-wrenching realities which heart recognizes and warmth of good moments works like a blanket rescuing from the bitterness of cold memorial pores of winter.

Sipping tea, eating food, laying in bed and working on assignments, i.e. daily activities, has an significance laid which reaches the inner heart vibrating memories of good and sad moments.

Sad moments, in my experience, occurred in December in my life. December occupies a difficult position. Whenever it reaches me, I ask myself: “Are you ready?”. What follows is leaps from the last year demise of hope into incoming struggle of living a day peacefully without interference of heart and mind, and a struggle which involves the hardening and stiffening of the parts of heart which feel nonetheless of all demises it is challenged by.

Good moments of winter, which are sparkles of footsteps to be followed on a struggle of invigoration of heart and mind, function like a warm blanket rescuing heart from the bitterness and sourness of the winter. Winter is not always bad. Sometimes, it equips with the tools that are helpful in mending the soul, reconstructing the walls of the heart and its tissues and calming down the mind, and its recurring storm of questions and suspicions. Not everything about winter is worst. These are skills and tools which make winter loved, maybe. Winter has a unique quality of remaining cold, just like heart, when it gets injured, distressed and suffers pangs of pain inside heart.

Winter is reminder and remainder of the good and bad memories. Winter is as cold as the injured heart and broken mind. The fatigue of the heart and restlessness of the mind is metaphor of winter in my memories. It has always broken and amended parts of me in its cold days and nights imparting greater charters of life. winter is bearable.  When it grows unbearable, it makes us learn to live the unbearable in the most elegant manner. Winter is all a person live by. Winter is good and bad memories.

A Chai Wala and the All Gaga About Him

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Chai Wala

A chai wala (Tea vendor) was usually making a tea in his shop when a photographer passing by took his pic and made him a star being featured on twitter, news channels, international news channels etc overnight.

His overnight fame has propelled many Pakistanis who are grumbling about his normal camera picture in the opposition to his DSLR Viral Picture. It is in no way a considerable fact. It is because, in the modelling where plastic surgeries and Botox are top priorities, he is a perfect in his looks, without professionally done photo shoot, without make up and without directions of how to look at camera. He did it all himself. Still, complains about his perceived-bad-looks are being heard.

As soon as, he became a sensation in the social media networks he was hired by fashion agency, taken interviews and came live on the national news channels. This is sheer his luck that took him to such height in less than 24 hours. It does not end here. Indian media, whose government is on journey of isolating us from the world, has praised this Chai Wala while referring how Indian girls are going gaga over his looks and rendering him more handsome than the limelight hunks of Bollywood. If relations with India were not marked by tensions, Bollywood directors must have finalized him for movies.

Social Media has become the most important platform for promotions and interactions of celebrity with their fans. Social media can be beneficial as well as harmful for a person’s reputation. Social media plays a vital role in Public Opinion formation now. Social media propaganda ends up being the most effective and influential. Social media, for example, has ruined the careers of many including Aamir Liaquat, Meera, Laila and many other Indian actors also whose leaked videos lowered their fame. It is being hoped that this Chai Wala’s overnight fame turns out to be in his good and bring about best times in his life.

This Chai Wala has reached a pinnacle of his career till now since his picture became viral. Personally, it astonishes how a picture captured through a camera has changed the fate of a poverty ridden guy who, despite of a thousands opportunities for education in the capital, makes tea in Itwar Bazaar and earns his living. All it can be said is that modelling is a venture and may he make the best decisions for himself in his career.

The Smile that Sails through Sea of difficulties

The smile is so beautiful that has sailed through the oceans of uncertainty, difficulties, numerous bleak days, thousands moments of loud heartbeats, questioning eyes of everyone, disability of understanding things accurately due to the stress and anxiety, inability to talk to the mind and heart etc. The smiles that bring the numb existence of a person into the lively existence bit by bit. That smile is so beautiful that has sailed through the difficulties.

Unhappiness and failure has a connection that dumps man into the darkest hours of life. Unhappiness extracts all the hope out of a man, and lets him be drunk into the societies of hopelessness, bleakness, dullness, uncertainties, darkness etc in the mind. Externally, the man seems to be nervous and dull loosing all the charm of his personality. Internally, he looses the strings of the hopes he yields to rise upon. Upon loosing the very strings that he prepares since years, he gets into entirely a different personality that exists in dullness and hopelessness.Unhappiness and failure has a reciprocal impact on the man.

The smile on the lips stays silent. Smile struggles through astonishment and amazement of the path which is purely painful in its every essence no matter how much enlightenment it sows in our souls. Day to day seems like a struggle to hike the journey upon. Every work and duty seems like onerous jobs. Morning to nights seems like a laborious, burdensome, strenuous, awkward and heavy. It shifts from laborious to burdensome, from strenuous to heavy in every moment. Living in the moments are difficult when making life less difficult and bearable. The smiles becomes oppressive with passing days that involve oppression and trouble for the soul.

This is the arduous as well as enlightening part of the life. There are a very few persons who choose unhappiness over happiness. Most smiles make it to the shore of seas of the difficulties. Dwelling in hopelessness, dullness, uncertainty and darkness builds up the soul with the bricks of fortitude, mettle, bravery, courage, the skills to live every pain with smiles and constructs the insides of the person into the most beautiful wings that can fly in every storm. It is said that for a rainbow to appear, there has to be a rain. Rainbow is very beautiful once it appears in our souls. Its spectrum installs the wings that can not be dislodged by any attitude of the people around.

It depends on every person how long he takes to reach the show of the sea of the difficulties. Every person has their own paths and roads to achievements. But when it reaches, it seems like the most beautiful gift of the life. Reaching a shore with a fortified soul, inability of people to affect the feelings and emotions of person, is the most beautiful feelings that is felt on a major success.

In the conclusion to every smile of the soul to reach a shore, it requires an inner voice. Everything ensues into positive. Everyone is beautiful. Everything is good and understandable. Your own soul becomes reflection of patience and tolerance. The smile is so beautiful that sails through the seas of difficulties, and shines.